What do the elderly eat?
The diet of the elderly to prevent “ten fists” intake balance to maintain a healthy diet structure and habits are beneficial to health, but also anti-aging, prevent diseases, especially to prevent obesity, cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes and boneThe occurrence of chronic diseases such as looseness.
Recently, the Nutrition Nutrition Association of China Nutrition Society put forward the “Ten Fist” principle of the old age balance index.
The reporter interviewed a famous nutrition expert, Professor Sun Jianqin, director of the Clinical Nutrition Center of Huadong Hospital affiliated to Fudan University, and asked her to interpret the “ten fists” for everyone.
Experts from the Nutrition Society of China Nutrition Society recently summed up the annual “Ten Fist” principle to help the elderly to remember the approximate food intake of various foods every day, simply and clearly, and estimate according to the size of their fists.The weight of the food, the weight of a fist’s raw food is about 150 grams.
The “Ten Fist” principle is specifically: two fists of cereals (various staple foods, including coarse grains, miscellaneous beans and potatoes); five fists of vegetables and fruits; a fist of meat (including fish, poultry, eggs, meat)); two fists of milk and soy products (including milk and its products, soy products).
In fact, the relevant experts of the Geriatric Nutrition Branch have added four “Guidelines for Elderly Patients” based on the “Guidelines for the Diet of Chinese Residents”, which is based on the general guidelines of the general population: First, prevent malnutrition and anemia;Reasonably arrange diet and improve the quality of life; Third, the food should be thick and thin, soft, absorb and digest; fourth, do more outdoor activities to maintain a healthy weight.
The cereals of the two fists are rich in nutrients and are an important source of vitamin B1 and fiber supplement.
More and more scientific research shows that the structure with plant food as the main component can avoid the defects caused by accumulated high energy, high fat and low blood sugar fibrosis patterns in Europe and the United States, and is beneficial for preventing cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, diabetes and cancer.
With the improvement of living standards and changes in the taste of food, the processing of grain is becoming more and more refined.
Although the refined rice noodles are white and delicate, the taste is good, but the biggest disadvantage is the loss of nutrients.
Cereals are the main source of B vitamins, and are rich in soluble fiber, minerals, etc. These nutrients are mostly found in the cortex and grain embryos of rice noodles. The finer the grain processing, the more nutrient loss.
If you eat white rice for a long time, it will cause insufficient intake of B vitamins and precipitated fiber.
Professor Sun Jianqin suggested that the elderly should choose two or more varieties of cereals every day, and consciously choose coarse grains to make the mix.
It is best for the elderly to eat 200 to 300 grams of cereal per day, of which coarse grains and grains should be 50 to 100 grams.
The five fists of vegetables, fruits, vegetables and fruits have “four treasures”: rich in vitamins, minerals, impurities and various antioxidants, and are alkaline in human metabolism, which can neutralize the acidic body produced by animal food metabolism.It has a special effect on maintaining human health.
A large number of studies have shown that vegetables and fruits are the first choice for most cancer prevention, and also play an important role in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, obesity, cataracts and the like.
Especially the effects of dark, yellow, green and other dark vegetables and fruits are more obvious.
Older people should eat 400 grams to 500 grams of vegetables a day, of which dark vegetables can best account for half; eat fruit 200 grams to 400 grams.
Guarantee one to two vegetables per meal and two to three fruits per day.
With the increase of age in a fist, the digestive function of the elderly is gradually weakened, the food intake is gradually reduced, and protein, vitamin A, B1, B2, calcium, iron and the like are easily produced.
Fish, poultry, eggs and lean meat are good sources of quality protein, lipids, fat-soluble vitamins, B vitamins and minerals.
Therefore, the elderly should always eat fish, poultry, eggs and lean meat, to ensure daily intake of fish and shrimp, poultry meat 50 grams to 100 grams, 50 grams of meat, 25 grams to 50 grams of eggs.
Professor Sun Jianqin reminded that pork contains high levels of saturated fatty acids and plasma, and replacing too much may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease.
Therefore, the elderly should eat less fat and internal organs.
Fish trace impurities are generally contained and contain a large amount of unsaturated fatty acids. Ethylpentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) may be present in some marine samples to prevent dyslipidemia and heart and brain.Vascular disease has a certain effect.
The poultry has a high fecal content and a high content of unsaturated fatty acids, and its fatty acid composition can also be used as livestock manure.
Eggs are concentrated in high-quality protein, and all kinds of nutrients are relatively complete.
Studies of milk and soy products in two fists have shown that the amount of calcium supplemented over the years has far exceeded the recommended intake, and with the increase in age, the demand for calcium in the elderly has also increased significantly.
In order to protect the health of bones and teeth in the elderly and prevent calcium deficiency-related diseases, the elderly should pay special attention to drinking milk.
Professor Sun Jianqin pointed out that the elderly should ensure that they drink 1 to 2 cups of milk a day, and it is best to choose low-fat milk.
In addition to beneficial bone health, milk is also good for lowering blood pressure.
Some ingredients in milk thistle also have certain anti-cancer and anti-cancer effects.
Therefore, human beings recognize “weaning” for life.
Soy is rich in high-quality protein and essential vitamins. It also contains a variety of phytochemicals such as low molecular weight and isoflavones, phytosterols, etc., which are beneficial to protect cardiovascular and prevent tumors.
Older people should eat about 100 grams of soy products every day.